In 1066, William the Conqueror invaded, beginning the Norman conquest of England.
1745 - God save the King was sung for the first time in public, at the Drury Lane Theatre in London.
1791 - France became the first country to emancipate its Jewish population.
1865 - Elizabeth Garrett Anderson became the first qualified woman physician in Britain.
1870 -Champion jockey Fred archer had his first win on Athol Daisy at just 13 years old.
1894 - Simon Marks and Tom Spencer opened their Penny Bazaar in Manchester.
1912 - The Ulster Covenant was signed by 500,000 Ulster Protestant Unionists in opposition to the Third Irish Home Rule Bill.
1918 - The First World War: The fifth Battle of Ypres began.
1928 - Sir Alexander Fleming noticed a bacteria-killing mold growing in his laboratory, discovering what later became known as penicillin.
1970 - Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser died of a heart attack in Cairo. Anwar Sadat was named his temporary successor, later to become permanent ruler.
1971 - Parliament passed the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 banning the medicinal use of cannabis.
1975 - The Spaghetti House siege, in which nine people were taken hostage, took place in London.
1978 - Pope John Paul I was found dead. He had been pope for just 33 days.
1994 - The ferry Estonia sank in the Baltic Sea. The total number of dead was finally put at 852. The wreck was not salvaged, but sealed, covered in sand and declared an official burial ground.
1995 - Chester the tortoise was recovered by his owner in Lyde, bear Hereford. He had been lost 35 years earlier.
1996 - At Ascot, Frankie Dettori became the first jockey to win all seven races at a meeting. The odds on this happening were 25,095 to one. Bookmakers lost more than £18million as a result.
1998 - The MCC voted to let women join the cricket club, ending a 211-year rule.
2008 - SpaceX launched the first private spacecraft, the Falcon 1, into orbit.