In 1303, the Battle of Roslin took place in the First War of Scottish Independence.
1582 - Pope Gregory XIII announced a change from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar.
1809 - London’s Drury Lane Theatre burned to the ground, leaving owner Richard Brinsley Sheridan destitute.
1902 - The British Post Office opened its telephone system to subscribers.
1909 - The first colour moving pictures were demonstrated in Brighton.
1917 - The Russian revolution began.
1920 - Nancy Astor became the first woman to address the British Parliament.
1923 - The Flying Scotsman went into service.
1932 - Malcolm Campbell beat his own land-speed record in Bluebird; he reached a speed of 253.96mph.
1938 - Nylon toothbrush bristles were produced for the first time. It was the first commercial use of nylon.
1945 - Egyptian Premier Ahmad Mahir Pasha was killed in parliament after reading a declaration of war against the Axis powers.
1946 - Juan Peron was elected President of Argentina.
1950 - Clement Attlee and the Labour party won the general election, with a much decreased majority.
1955 - Britain was in the grip of the big freeze, with more than 70 roads impassable. The RAF dropped food and medical supplies in the worst affected areas, as well as tons of hay over the Scottish Highlands as sheep were starving.
1981 - Buckingham Palace announced the engagement of the Prince of Wales to Lady Diana Spencer.
1994 - British Coal announced its last four pit ponies were retiring.
1997 - Fire broke out on the Mir space station.
1998 - Princess Margaret suffered a mild stroke while on holiday in Mustique.
2002 - An online poll voted Eddie Izzard as the funniest comedian ever, with Billy Connolly coming in second and the Monty Python team third.
2008 - Fidel Castro retired as President of Cuba after nearly 50 years.