In 1837 - The official compulsory Register of Births, Marriages and Deaths began in England.
1858 - Charles Darwin presented his paper, ‘On the Origin of the Species’, to the Linnaean Society in London.
1903 - Start of the first Tour de France bicycle race.
1905 - Albert Einstein published his ‘Theory of Relativity’.
1908 - SOS was adopted as the international distress signal.
1910 - Duncan Black and Alfonzo Decker established their tool company.
1912 - The Copyright Act came into force, protecting an author’s work for 50 years after their death.
1916 - The Battle of the Somme began. More than 21,000 men were killed on the first day of battle.
1918 - The pop-up toaster was unveiled by inventor Charles Strite.
1922 - The world’s first shopping centre, The Country Club Plaza, opened in America.
1929 - Elzie Segar created the cartoon character Popeye.
1931 - Trolley buses began running in London.
1937 - The 999 telephone emergency service came into operation in Britain.
1948 - The first Oxfam shop opened in Oxford.
1967 - The European Community was formally created out of a merger with the Common Market, the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Commission.
1974 - Argentinian President Juan Peron died in office aged 78.
1977 - Virginia Wade won the Ladies’ Singles title at the 100th Wimbledon championships.
1979 - Sony introduced the Walkman.
1996 - Tim Henman became the first British man to reach the quarter-finals at Wimbledon for 23 years, when he beat Magnus Gustafsson in straight sets.
1997 - After 99 years as a British colony, Hong Kong returned to Chinese sovereignty.
1999 - The Scottish Parliament re-opened for the first time since 1707.
2007 - The ban on smoking in enclosed public places came into effect in England.