1217 - The Second Battle of Lincoln was fought, resulting in the defeat of Prince Louis of France by William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke.
1277 - Pope John XXI was killed when a portion of ceiling fell on him.
1310 - Shoes were made specifically for left and right feet for the first time.
1570 - Cartographer Abraham Ortelius issued Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, the first modern atlas.
1609 - Shakespeare’s sonnets were published.
1830 - H D Hyde of Reading, Pennsylvania, patented the fountain pen.
1840 - York Minster was badly damaged by fire.
1873 - Levi Strauss and Jacob Davis received a U.S. patent for blue jeans with copper rivets.
1883 - Krakatoa began to erupt; the volcano exploded three months later, killing more than 36,000 people.
1927 - Charles Lindbergh made the world’s first solo non-stop flight, from Roosevelt Field in Long Island, New York at 07.52 touching down at Le Bourget Field in Paris at 22:22 the next day.
1932 - Amelia Earhart took off from Newfoundland to begin the world’s first solo nonstop flight across the Atlantic Ocean by a female pilot, landing in Ireland the next day.
1939 - Pan Am began air services to Europe.
1940 - The first prisoners arrived at a new concentration camp at Auschwitz.
1944 - Nazi officers attempted to assassinate Hitler at a staff meeting.
1948 - Chiang Kai-shek was elected as the first President of the Republic of China.
1956 - In Operation Redwing, the first United States airborne hydrogen bomb was dropped over Bikini Atoll in the Pacific Ocean.
1959 - Guy Trebert was arrested in Paris, the first criminal caught through the use of an identikit picture.
1988 - A new licensing act allowed pubs to stay open for 12 hours, from 11am to 11pm, Monday to Saturday.
1989 - The Chinese authorities declared martial law in the face of pro-democracy demonstrations, setting the scene for the Tiananmen Square massacre.