1568 - Battle of Langside: the forces of Mary, Queen of Scots, were defeated by a confederacy of Scottish Protestants under James Stewart, Earl of Moray, her half-brother.
1607 - English colonists, led by Lincolnshire’s John Smith, landed near James River in Virginia.
1637 - Cardinal Richelieu of France reputedly created the table knife.
1643 - Battle of Grantham: English parliamentary armies beat royalists.
1787 - The first convict ships set sail from Portsmouth to establish a penal colony in Australia.
1821 - The first practical printing press was patented in America by Samuel Rust.
1907 - Author Daphne du Maurier was born in London.
1912 - The Royal Flying Corps, the forerunner of the Royal Air Force, was established.
1917 - Three children in Fatima, Portugal, claimed to have seen a vision of the Virgin Mary.
1922 - “Latin Lover” silent actor Rudolph Valentino (27) married film costume and set designer Natacha Rambova (25) in Mexicali, Mexico.
1924 - Actress Marlene Dietrich and Rudolf Sieber were married in Berlin. The union lasted more than 50 years.
1948 - The Registrar General reported a baby boom, with 193,865 babies born in the previous three months.
1958 - The trademark Velcro is registered.
1961 - American actor Gary Cooper died of cancer at his Bel Air home, aged 60.
1977 - Prime minister James Callaghan faced charges of nepotism after he appointed his son-in-law as ambassador to Washington.
1981 - Pope John Paul II was wounded in an assassination attempt in Rome.
1988 - American jazz trumpeter Chet Baker fell to his death out of an Amsterdam hotel window, aged 59.
1995 - 33-year-old British mother Alison Hargreaves became the first woman to climb Mount Everest without oxygen and without the help of Sherpas.
2014 - Christopher Columbus’s flagship, the Santa Maria, was discovered off the coast of Haiti.