1570 - Pope Pius V excommunicated Queen Elizabeth I.
1723 - Sir Christopher Wren, architect of St Paul’s Cathedral, died at the age of 90, after catching a chill on a trip to London to visit his “greatest work”.
1862 - Paper currency (greenbacks) was introduced in the United States, by President Abraham Lincoln.
1913 - Suffragette Emmeline Pankhurst went on trial for a bomb attack on the home of David Lloyd George, Chancellor of the Exchequer.
1918 - Meat, butter and margarine rationing began.
1926 - Francisco Franco became General of Spain.
1932 - Hitler was granted German citizenship.
1939 - The first Anderson air raid shelter was built, in Islington, London.
1945 - World War II: Turkey declared war on Germany.
1946 - In the rush for the first bananas in Britain since the war, one three-year-old ate so many she died of an overdose.
1947 - The State of Prussia ceased to exist.
1954 - Gamal Abdel Nasser was made premier of Egypt.
1957 - Buddy Holly recorded his first hit single, ‘That’ll Be The Day’.
1964 - Twenty-two-year-old Cassius Clay became World Heavyweight Boxing Champion. He later took the name Muhammed Ali.
1969 - The Beatles began recording at ‘Abbey Road’.
1972 - Miners voted to call off their crippling seven-week coal strike, after reaching a pay settlement. The strike had seen 1.2 million workers laid off as a result of the imposition of a three-day week and a state of emergency declared.
1982 - The European Court of Human Rights ruled corporal punishment in Britain’s schools was a violation of the Human Rights Convention. Britain was the last country in Western Europe to ban corporal punishment in state schools, in 1986.
1983 - American playwright Tennessee Williams (born Thomas Lanier Williams III) died in New Yok, aged 71.
1998 - Switzerland’s first legal brothel opened, in Zurich.
2007 - Helen Mirran won her first Best Actress Oscar for her portrayal of Elizabeth II in the film ‘The Queen’.