1645 - The Royalists were beaten by the Parliamentarians at Naseby, in the decisive battle of the English Civil War.
1777 - The Stars and Stripes was adopted by Congress as the Flag of the United States.
1834 - Isaac Fisher of Vermont patented sandpaper.
1839 - Henley-on-Thames staged its first regatta.
1847 - Robert Bunsen invented the burner that bears his name.
1894 - Thomas Edison filmed a boxing match between Mike Leonard and Jack Cushing in New Jersey; the first filmed sporting event.
1907 - Norway granted women the right to vote.
1933 - German Jews were banned from the 1936 Berlin Olympics.
1940 - German forces entered Paris, forcing French and allied troops to retreat.
1949 – Albert II, a rhesus monkey, rode a V-2 rocket to an altitude of 134 km (83 mi), thereby becoming the first monkey in space.
1967 - The People’s Republic of China tested its first hydrogen bomb.
1982 - The Falklands War ended with the surrender of Argentine troops on the islands.