1189 - Richard I acknowledged the independence of Scotland.
1766 - James Christie, founder of the famous auction house, held his first sale in London.
1872 - The Mary Celeste, which had sailed from New York the month before, was found abandoned off the Azores.
1905 - The roof of London’s Charing Cross station collapsed, killing six people.
1920 - After a fiercely fought campaign, Scotland voted against prohibition.
1933 - Prohibition was repealed in the USA after more than 13 years.
1941 - Great Britain declared war on Finland, Hungary and Romania.
1952- A cold fog descended upon London, combining with air pollution and killing at least 12,000 in the weeks and months that followed.
1956 - Britain’s first woman judge, Rose Heilbron QC, was appointed in Burnley.
1958 - Britain’s first motorway, the Preston by-pass, was opened by Prime Minister Harold Macmillan.
1970 - George Best scored his 100th goal for Manchester United.
1991 - Leonid Kravchuk was elected as the first president of Ukraine.