565 - St Columba reported seeing a monster in Loch Ness. It was the first sighting of the Loch Ness Monster.
1138 - The Battle of the Standard between Scotland and England.
1485 - The Battle of Bosworth Field, the death of Richard III and the end of the House of Plantagenet.
1639 - Madras (now Chennai), India, was founded by the British East India Company on a sliver of land bought from local Nayak rulers.
1642 - Charles I raised his standard in Nottingham, which marked the beginning of the English Civil War.
1864 - The International Red Cross was founded by the Geneva Convention to assist the wounded and prisoners of war.
1865 - Liquid soap was patented by William Sheppard.
1902 - Teddy Roosevelt became the first American President to ride in a motor car.
1950 - Althea Gibson became the first black competitor in international tennis.
1985 - Following an aborted take-off, a British Airtours Boeing 737 burst into flames on the runway at Manchester Airport, killing 55 people.