In 1459, the Battle of Blore Heath – the first major battle of the Wars of the Roses – was fought at Blore Heath in Staffordshire.
1641 - The Merchant Royal, carrying a treasure worth over a billion US dollars, was lost at sea off Land’s End.
1846 - German astronomer Johann Galle discovered Neptune.
1848 - Chewing gum was commercially produced for the first time in America by John Curtis. It was called ‘State of Maine Pure Spruce Gum’.
1879 - Richard Rhodes invented a hearing aid called the Audiophone.
1889 - Nintendo Koppai (Later Nintendo Company Limited) was founded by Fusajiro Yamauchi to produce and market the playing card game Hanafuda.
1897 - A nine-year-old London boy became the first pedestrian to be killed in a car crash.
1912 - The first silent Keystone Cops film, Cohen Collects a Debt, was released.
1913 - Roland Garros of France became the first to fly in an aeroplane across the Mediterranean (from St Raphael, France, to Bizerte, Tunisia).
1932 - The Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd was renamed the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
1951 - King George VI underwent an operation to remove part of his lung.
1955 - Popular television quiz Take Your Pick was broadcast for the first time.
1973 - Juan Peron was re-elected President of Argentina after he had been ousted in 1955.
1974 - The world’s first Ceefax teletext service was started by the BBC.
1995 - Three hat-tricks were scored in the Premiership on the same day - by Robbie Fowler (Liverpool), Alan Shearer (Blackburn) and Tony Yeboah (Leeds United).
2000 - British rower Steve Redgrave made Olympic history by winning his fifth consecutive gold medal, at the Sydney Games.
2001 - Prince William arrived at St Andrew’s University to study for a four-year history of art degree. Applications to the university rose by 44 per cent after the Prince announced he would attend.