In 1249, Alexander III was crowned King of Scots.
1643 - English Civil War: Henry Wilmot, 1st Earl of Rochester, commanding the Royalist forces, heavily defeated the Parliamentarian forces, led by Sir William Waller, at the Battle of Roundway Down.
1814 - The Carabinieri, the national gendarmerie of Italy, was established.
1837 - Queen Victoria moved into Buckingham Palace, the first monarch to do so.
1871 - The first cat show was held at Crystal Palace.
1911 - The Prince of Wales’ investiture took place at Caernarvon Castle.
1919 -The British airship R34 landed in Norfolk, completing the first airship return journey across the Atlantic, in 182 hours of flight.
1923 - The Liquor Bill banned the sale of alcohol to under 18s.
1923 - The Hollywood sign was officially dedicated in the hills above Hollywood. It originally read Hollywoodland but the four last letters were dropped after renovation in 1949.
1930 - The football World Cup was held for the first time, in Uruguay. The hosts went on to win the tournament.
1955 - Ruth Ellis was hanged for killing her lover. She was the last woman to be executed in Britain.
1962 - In an unprecedented action, Prime Minister Harold Macmillan dismissed seven members of his cabinet, marking the effective end of the National Liberals as a distinct force within British politics.
1977 - Somalia declared war on Ethiopia, starting the Ogaden War.
1978 - New figures revealed the average house price in London was £16,731.
1985 - Two simultaneous Live Aid concerts in London and Philadelphia were held. They ran for 16 hours and raised more than £50 million for victims of famine in Africa.
2001 - 101-year-old Les Amey set a new record for the World Veterans’ Games in Brisbane in the 1,500 metres – he took 19 minutes, 59 seconds.
2002 - Jamaican-born David Lee broke the world free diving record. He swam to a depth of 167 feet without the aid of fins.