1095 - The Council of Clermont, called by Pope Urban II to discuss sending the First Crusade to the Holy Land, began.
1493 - Christopher Columbus went ashore on an island he first saw the day before. He named it San Juan Bautista - later renamed Puerto Rico.
1600 - King Charles I was born at Dunfermline Palace, Fife.
1828 - Austrian composer Franz Schubert died from typhoid fever at the age of 31.
1850 - Alfred Tennyson became Poet Laureate, succeeding William Wordsworth.
1863 - US President Abraham Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg Address at the dedication ceremony for the military cemetery at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.
1906 - London was selected to host the 1908 Olympics.
1911 - The Doom Bar in Cornwall claimed two ships, Island Maid and Angele, the latter killing the entire crew except the captain.
1916 - Samuel Goldwyn and Edgar Selwyn established Goldwyn Pictures.
1946 - Afghanistan, Iceland and Sweden joined the United Nations.
1949 - Prince Rainier III was crowned as the 30th ruling Prince of Monaco. He married actress Grace Kelly in 1956.
1961 - Margaret Mary Emily Anne Hyra - better known as actress Meg Ryan - was born in Connecticut.
1962 - Alicia Christian Foster - better known as actress/director/producer Jodie Foster - was born in California.
1965 - Kellogg’s created their Pop Tarts pastries.
1969 - Apollo 12 astronauts Pete Conrad and Alan Bean landed at Oceanus Procellarum (the “Ocean of Storms”) and became the third and fourth humans to walk on the Moon.
1994 - The first UK National Lottery draw was held. A £1 ticket gave a one-in-14-million chance of correctly guessing the winning six out of 49 numbers.
1998 - Vincent van Gogh’s Portrait of the Artist Without Beard sold at auction for US$71.5 million.
1999 - The People’s Republic of China launched its first Shenzhou spacecraft.