1823 - Simon Bolivar became the dictator of Peru. He was known as ‘The Liberator’.
1869 - The rickshaw was invented in Yokahama, Japan.
1897 - George Smith, a London cab driver, became the first person to be convicted of drink driving. He was fined 20s (£1).
1919 - The Treaty of Saint-Germain was signed. The new boundaries brought about the end of the Austrian Empire.
1922 - The first race at the Monza circuit took place.
1927 - France won the Davis Cup for the first time.
1933 - Fred Perry won the US Open tennis championship.
1942 - In a single raid, the RAF dropped 100,000 bombs on Dusseldorf.
1946 - While riding a train to Darjeeling, Sister Teresa Bojaxhiu of the Loreto Sisters’ Convent claimed to have heard the call of God, directing her “to leave the convent and help the poor while living among them”. She became known as Mother Teresa.
1961 - A crash at the Italian Grand Prix resulted in the death of German Formula One driver Wolfgang von Trips and 13 spectators who were hit by his Ferrari when it veered off the track.
1963 - The American Express credit card was launched in Britain.
1967 - The people of Gibraltar voted to remain a British dependency rather than becoming part of Spain.
1972 - Emerson Fittipaldi became the youngest Formula 1 World Champion.
1987 - Westminster Council lifted a 35-year ban on stage hypnotists.
1989 - Hungary opened its border to the West, allowing thousands of East Germans to leave.
1990 - The Pope consecrated the world’s biggest church, at Yamoussoukro on the Ivory Coast.
1999 - Work began to hoist the 1,500-tonne London Eye ferris wheel into position, but it hit difficulties and attempts were temporarily abandoned.
2000 - A blockade of petrol stations in protest at highfuel prices started to take effect as they began to run dry.By September 11 half of Britain’s petrol stations had closed.