622 - The traditional beginning of the Islamic calendar, when Mohammed began his flight from Mecca to Medina.
1377 - Coronation of King Richard II.
1439 - Kissing was outlawed to halt the spread of the Plague.
1557 - Anne of Cleves, fourth wife of Henry VIII, died. She lived to see the coronation of Mary 1, outliving the rest of Henry’s wives.
1661 - The first banknotes in Europe were issued, by the Bank of Stockholm.
1867 - Reinforced concrete was patented by Frenchman Joseph Monier.
1911 - Ginger Rogers - Virginia Katherine McMath - dancing partner to Fred Astaire, was born.
1918 - The last Tsar of Russia, Nicholas II, was murdered by the Bolsheviks, along with his entire family, doctor, servants and pet dog.
1935 - The world’s first parking meter was installed, in Oklahoma City.
1945 - The first atomic bomb exploded in New Mexico. It had been developed by Robert Oppenheimer and his team at Los Alamos.
1950 - Uruguay beat Brazil 2-1 at the football World Cup Final in Rio de Janerio. A record-breaking 199,854 people packed into the stadium to watch the game.
1952 - The Police musician Stewart Copeland was born in Virginia, USA. His father was a CIA agent.
1955 - Stirling Moss won the British Grand Prix at the Aintree track near Liverpool - the first time an Englishman had triumphed in the race.
1965 - The Mont Blanc road tunnel, linking France and Italy, was opened.
1966 - Eric Clapton, Jack Bruce and Ginger Baker formed the rock group Cream.
1969 - The Apollo 11 space rocket took off from Cape Kennedy at the start of the first attempt to land a man on the Moon
1979 - Saddam Hussein became Iraq’s President.
1993 - Stella Rimington became the first Director General of MI5 to pose openly for cameras, as Britain’s internal security service held its first photocall in its 84-year history.