1450 - Glasgow University was founded.
1536 - Catherine of Aragon, first wife of Henry VIII, died aged 50 at Kimbolton Castle in Cambridgeshire.
1558 - Calais, the last English possession on mainland France, was recaptured by the French.
1610 - Italian astronomer Galileo discovered Jupiter’s four satellites, naming then Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto.
1785 - Jean-Pierre Blanchard and Dr John Jeffries made the first air crossing of the English Channel. They used a hot-air balloon.
1785 - The London-New York telephone service began operating. A three-minute call cost £15.
1797 - The modern Italian flag was first used.
1890 - W B Purvis patented the fountain pen.
1904 - The international distress signal, CQD, was adopted. Two years later, it was replaced with SOS.
1914 - First steamboat passed through Panama Canal
1915 - Windsor Castle was cut off by floods. Milk and post were delivered by punt.
1926 - Television inventor John Logie Baird gave the first demonstration of television to the press, at 23 Frith Street in Soho.
1927 - The Harlem Globetrotters basketball team was founded.
1949 - First photo of genes was taken at the University of South California, by Pease and Baker.
1955 - Marian Anderson became the first African American to perform at America’s Metropolitan Opera House.
1965 - Ronnie and Reggie Kray were remanded in custody on a charge of demanding money with menaces.
1973 - Hitler’s car was sold for $153,000 at and Arizona auction.
1989 - Prince Akihito was sworn in as the emperor of Japan after the death of his father Hirohito.
1990 - Because of its accelerated rate of leaning, The Leaning Tower of Pisa was closed to the public for the first time in its history amid safety fears.
1999 - Prince Charles won the Beat Fopp Cowbell Marathon Derby - after skiing 42 miles in six and a half hours.